HISTORY OF THE MARINE CORPS

  The History of the United States Marine Corps begins with the founding of the Continental Marines in 1775 to conduct ship-to-ship fighting, provide shipboard security and assist in landing forces. Its mission evolved with changing military doctrine and foreign policy of the United States. Owing to the availability of Marine forces at sea, the United States Marine Corps has served in every conflict in U.S. history. It attained prominence when its theories and practice of amphibious warfare proved prescient, and ultimately formed a cornerstone of the Pacific campaign of World War II. By the early 20th century, the Marine Corps would become one of the dominant theorist and practitioner of amphibious warfare. Its ability to rapidly respond to regional crises has made and continues to make it an important tool for American foreign policy.

          The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States Armed Forces responsible for providing force projection from the sea, using the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. It is one of seven uniformed services of the U.S. In the civilian leadership structure of the United States military, the Marine Corps is a component of the Department of the Navy, but in the military leadership structure it is a separate branch, while often working closely with US Naval forces for training, transportation, and logistic purposes.

          Captain Samuel Nicholas formed two battalions of Continental Marines on 10 November 1775 in Philadelphia as naval infantry. Since then, the mission of Marine Corps has evolved with changing military doctrine and American foreign policy. The Marine Corps served in every American armed conflict and attained prominence in the 20th century when its theories and practices of amphibious warfare proved prescient and ultimately formed the cornerstone of the Pacific campaign of World War II. By the mid 20th century, the Marine Corps had become the dominant theorist and practitioner of amphibious warfare. Its ability to respond rapidly to regional crises gives it a strong role in the implementation and execution of American foreign policy.

          The United States Marine Corps, with just over 201,000 active duty Marines and just under 40,000 reserve Marines, is the smallest of the United States' armed forces in the Department of Defense (the United States Coast Guard is smaller, about one fifth the size of the Marine Corps, but serves under Homeland Security). The Corps is nonetheless larger than the entire armed forces of many significant military powers; for example, it is larger than the active duty Israel Defense Forces or the whole of the British Army.

          The Marine Corps is also highly cost effective. The cost per Marine is $20,000 less than the cost of servicemen from the other services and the entire force can be used for both hybrid and major combat operations.

Colonial Era
          Ever since the declining days of the Roman Empire, the progenitor of seafaring soldiers has been lost throughout the archaic history of the world. Perhaps the earliest reminisce of the United States Marine Corps dates back to the creation and evolution of the marines from the European naval wars throughout the seventeenth century. The monarchies of Netherland , France , and England all contended with each other in control over territorial water; which would increase naval organization and stability. As France and Netherland opted in training seamen for combat; however, England instead in 1664 formed a maritime regiment of infantrymen to provide military projection under the complete control of the Lord High Admiral.

          These special soldiers became the Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot, or clearly the Lord High Admiral's Regiment, seeing action during the Second Anglo-Dutch War. By 1702, the british government assembled six regiments of marines for naval service. The marines found themselves fighting ashore the beaches of Gibraltar and Spain as part of a landing force during the War of the Spanish Succession (1702–1741). By the time war ended, the maritime infantry regiments were disbanded, the majority of the marines folded into the british army.

          During the War of Jenkins' Ear in 1739, the British navy reestablished ten regiments of marines for campaigns against the Spanish colonies in the Caribbean and north coast of Latin America. Four of the regiments, comprised of three thousand in strength, were formed from the American colonies. The majority were drafted from the army directly into naval service with Admiral Edward Vernon's fleet. A company of Marine Boatmen from the Georgia Militia, commanded by Nobel Jones, helped in defeating an amphibious landing attempted by the Spanish landing force on St. Simons Island in the Battle of Gully Hole Creek and the Battle of Bloody Marsh.

          A four-battalion, regiment of 3,000 American colonial marines was raised in the colony of Virginia, commanded by Virginia Governor William Gooch. Known as "Gooch's Marines", their lineage can be traced to the origin of the United States Marine Corps. Although it may had comprised of men from surrounding colonies intent for a Crown commission, it was also used as a dumping ground for its debtors, criminals, scoundrels, and vagrants. As a successful method in social purification, only 10-percent survived the unsuccessful assault on a seaport during the Cartegena expedition. One of the regiment's officers, Lawrence Washington—a half-brother of George Washington—was amongst the survivors.

          Like their English components, the colonial marines disbanded as a regiment in 1742, the remaining independent companies were merged with another regiment in 1746.
Other marines were raised for the various state navies that came into existence shortly before the Revolutionary War.

Revolutionary War
          The United States Marine Corps traces its institutional roots to the Continental Marines of the American Revolutionary War. The Continental Congress formed the Continental Marines on 10 November 1775, planning to draw them from among Washington's army in Boston and send them to capture supplies from Halifax, Nova Scotia. However, Washington was unenthuthiastic about the plan and suggested the Marines be recruited in New York or Philadelphia instead. Captain Samuel Nicholas was commissioned as the Continental Marines' first officer on 28 November 1775. Though legend places its first recruiting post at Tun Tavern, Marine historian Edwin Simmons surmises that it was more likely the Conestoga Waggon, a tavern owned by the Nicholas family. Robert Mullen, whose mother owned Tun Tavern, later received a commission in June 1776 and likely used it as his recruiting rendezvous.

          By December 1775, five companies of about 300 Marines were raised. While armed, they were not equipped with uniforms. However, they headed not North as originally planned, but South, for the Caribbean. The five companies joined Commodore Esek Hopkins of the Continental Navy's first squadron on its first cruise. Hopkins ignored his ambitious orders to sweep the southern seas of British ships, and instead raided the Bahamas for gunpowder for Washington's army. Nicholas' Marines made an opposed landing and marched on Nassau Town, on the island of New Providence, seizing shot, shells and cannon. However, a failed attempt at a surprise attack the day before had warned the defenders, who sent off their stock of gunpowder in the night. Sailing back to Rhode Island, the squadron captured four small prize ships. The squadron finally returned on 8 April 1776, with 7 dead Marines (including Lt. John Fitzpatrick), and four wounded. Though Hopkins was disgraced for failing to obey orders, Nicholas was promoted to Major on 25 June and tasked with raising 4 new companies of Marines for 4 new frigates then under construction. Among the newly commissioned Marines was Captain Robert Mullan.

          In December 1776, the Marines were tasked to join Washington's army at Trenton to slow the progress of British troops southward through New Jersey. Unsure what to do with the Marines, Washington added the Marines to a brigade of Philadelphia militia, also dressed in green. Captain Mullan's roster lists two black men, Issac and Orange, the first recorded black Marines. Though they were unable to arrive in time to affect the battle of Trenton, they assisted in the decisive American victory at Princeton.

          Continental Marines landed and captured Nautilus Island and the Majabagaduce peninsula in the Penobscot Expedition. A group under Navy Captain James Willing left Pittsburgh, traveled down the Ohio and Mississippi Rivers, captured a ship and in conjunction with other Continental Marines brought by ship from the Gulf of Mexico raided British Loyalists on the shore of Lake Ponchartrain.

          The last official act of the Continental Marines was to escort a stash of French silver crowns on loan from Louis XVI, from Boston to Philadelphia, to enable the opening of the Bank of North America. At the end of the Revolution in 1783, both the Continental Navy and Marines were disbanded. In all, there were 131 Colonial Marine officers there were probably no more than 2,000 enlisted Colonial Marines. Though individual Marines were enlisted for the few American naval vessels, the organization would not be re-created until 1798. Despite the gap between the disbanding of the Continental Marines and the U.S. Marine Corps, Marines worldwide celebrate 10 November 1775 as the Marine Corps Birthday. This is traditional in Marine units and is similar to the practice of the British and Netherlands Royal Marines.

Founding of the Modern Marine Corps
          In preparation for the Quasi-War with France, Congress created the United States Navy and Marine Corps. The "Act to provide a Naval Armament" of March 18, 1794 authorizing new build frigates for the Quasi-War with France had specified the numbers of Marines to be recruited for each frigate. Marines were enlisted by the War Department as early as August 1797  for service in these frigates. Daniel Carmick and Lemuel Clerk were commissioned Lieutenants of Marines on May 5, 1798. Under the "Act for establishing and organizing a Marine Corps", signed on 11 July 1798 by President John Adams, the Marine Corps was to consist of a battalion of 500 privates, lead by a major and a complement of officers and NCO's. The next day, William W. Burrows was appointed Major of the Marine Corps. In the Quasi-War, Marines aboard the USS Constitution conducted raids in the waters off Hispaniola against the French and Spanish, making the first of many landings in Haiti.

          Among the equipment Burrows inherited was a stock of leftover blue uniforms with red trim, the basis for the modern "dress blues". When the capital moved to Washington, D.C. in June 1800, Burrows was appointed Lieutenant Colonel Commandant of the Marine Corps; the first official Commandant. Burrows selected the land between 8th and 9th, and G and I streets for the new Marine Barracks, still in service today. Burrows also founded the Marine Band, which debuted at the President's House on 1 January 1801 and has played for every presidential inauguration since.

          The Marines' most famous action of this period occurred in the First Barbary War (1801–1805) when William Eaton and First Lieutenant Presley O'Bannon led a group of eight Marines and 300 Arab and European mercenaries in an attempt to capture Tripoli. Though they only made it as far as Derna, Tripoli has been immortalized in the Marines' Hymn and the Mameluke sword carried by Marine officers.

          In May 1811, 2 officers and 47 Marines established an advanced base on Cumberland Island, Georgia to be used for actions against pirates in Spanish Florida and captured Fernandino in Spanish Florida on 18 March 1812. They occupied it until May 1813. This was the first peacetime overseas base of the United States.

          The Marine Corps' first land action of the War of 1812 was the establishment of an advanced base at Sacketts Harbor, New York by 63 Marines. The Marines also established another base at Erie, Pennsylvania. Marine ship detachments took part in the great frigate duels of the war, the first American victories of the war. By the end of the war Marines acquired a reputation as marksmen, especially in ship to ship actions. Marines participated in US Army Colonel Winfield Scott's amphibious landing at York (now Toronto). Their most significant contributions came at the Battle of Bladensburg and the defense of New Orleans. Under Commodore Barney and Captain Samuel Miller, USMC, they acted to delay the British forces marching toward Bladenburg. At Bladensburg, they held the line after the Army and militia retreated, and although eventually overrun, inflicted heavy casualties on the British and delayed their march to Washington. At New Orleans, the Marines held the center of Gen. Andrew Jackson's defensive line.

          Together with sailors and U.S. Army troops, they again captured Fernandino in Spanish Florida on 23 December 1817. Fernandino was occupied until Spain ceded Florida to the U.S. in 1821. In 1823 Marines also established an advanced base on Thompson's Island, now called Key West, for use against pirates around the island of Cuba. They garrisoned Pensacola, Florida in 1825 to use it as a base against pirates in the West Indies.

          After the war, the Marine Corps fell into an ill state. The third commandant, Franklin Wharton, died while in office and the fourth commandant, Anthony Gale, was the first commandant to be fired. However, the appointment of Archibald Henderson as its fifth commandant in 1820 breathed new life into the Corps. He would go on to be the longest-serving commandant, commonly referred to as the "Grand old man of the Marine Corps". Under his tenure, the Marine Corps took on a number of expeditionary duties in the Caribbean, the Gulf of Mexico, Key West, West Africa, the Falkland Islands, and Sumatra. Commandant Henderson is also credited with thwarting attempts by President Andrew Jackson to combine the Marine Corps with the Army. Instead, Congress passed the Act for the Better Organization of the Marine Corps in 1834, stipulating that the Corps was part of the Department of the Navy, as a sister service to the U.S. Navy. This would be the first of many times that Congress came to the aid of the Marines.

          When the Seminole Wars (1835–1842) broke out, Commandant Henderson volunteered the Marines for service, leading 2 battalions to war — half the strength of the Marine Corps. They garrisoned Fort Brooke in Tampa Bay, Florida and held off an Indian attack on 22 January 1836. Col. Archibald Henderson commanded the mixed Marine/Army Second Brigade at the Battle of Hatchee-Lustee on 27 January 1837, for which he was brevetted a brigadier general.


Storming of Chapultepec

          A decade later, in the Mexican-American War (1846–1848), the Marines made their famed assault on Chapultepec Palace, which overlooked Mexico City, their first major expeditionary venture. Since Marching to Mexico City was long and perhaps impossible, a combined Marine and Army force (containing some 200 Marines) under MajGen Winfield Scott made an unopposed landing south of Veracruz on 9 March 1847 and captured the city on 29 March. From there, they fought their way to Mexico City and commenced their assault on 13 September. The Marines were given the task of clearing the Palacio National, the "Halls of Montezuma", where they cut down the Mexican colors and ran up the Stars and Stripes. The high mortality rate amongst officers and non-commissioned officers is memorialized in the dress uniform's "blood stripes", as well as the line "From the Halls of Montezuma" in the Marines' Hymn.Marines were later placed on guard duty at the palace and Captain Jacob Zeilin, future Commandant, was made military governor. Marines also seized several ports in California and Mexico as part of the Navy's blockade of Mexico that successfully prevented overseas arms and munitions from reaching the Mexican forces.

          In the 1850s, the Marines would further see service in Panama, and in Asia, escorting Matthew Perry's East India Squadron on its historic trip to the East. Two hundred Marines under Zeilin were among the Americans who first stepped foot on Japan; they can be seen in contemporary woodprints in their blue jackets, white trousers, and black shakos.

Civil War
Marines and Sailors on the U.S. gunboat Mendota — blockade duty, 1864.

          Despite their stellar service in foreign engagements, the Marine Corps played only a minor role during the Civil War (1861–1865); their most important task was blockade duty and other ship-board battles, but were mobilized for a handful of operations as the war progressed.

          During the prelude to war, a hastily-created 86-man Marine detachment under Lieutenant Israel Greene was detached to arrest John Brown at Harper's Ferry in 1859. Command of the mission was given to then-Colonel Robert E. Lee and his aide, Lieutenant J.E.B. Stuart, having been on leave in the area at the time. The Marines arrived to the town via train, and quickly surrounded John Brown's Fort. Upon his refusal to surrender, the Marines stormed the building, battering down the door with hammers and a ladder used as a battering ram. Greene slashed Brown twice and would have killed him had his sword not bent on his last thrust; in his haste he had carried his light dress sword instead of his regulation sword.

          At the opening of the war, the Marine Corps had 1892 officers and men, but half the captains and two-thirds of the lieutenants resigned to join the Confederacy, as did many prominent Army officers. On the opposite side of the lines, the Confederate Congress authorized a marine corps of 10 companies, which played little role in the war. Following the defections, the 13 Marine officers and 336 Marines, mostly recruits, were hastily formed into a battalion and sent to Manassas. At the First Battle of Bull Run (First Manassas), they performed poorly, running away like the rest of the Union forces. Commandant Harris reported sadly that this was "the first instance in Marine history where any portion of its members turned their backs to the enemy."

          Congress only slightly enlarged the Marines and the Regular Army and after filling detachments for the ships of the Navy, the Marine Corps was only able to field about one battalion at a time as a larger force for service ashore. Marines from ship's detachments as well as scratch battalions took part in the landing operations necessary to capture bases for blockade duty. These were mostly successful, but on 8 September 1863, the Marines tried an amphibious landing to capture Fort Sumter in Charlestown harbor and failed. This was one of the few failed landings of the USMC. Due to a shortage of officers, the Marine battalion of Commander Preble's naval brigade that fought at Honey Hill, SC in 1864 started the battle with a 1st Lt. as Battalion Commander. He was the only officer in the battalion. All the Company Commanders and other battalion "officers" were sergeants. In January 1865, the Marines took part in the assault on Fort Fisher. They were tasked with acting as riflemen on the flank of the attack to shoot any Confederate troops that appeared on the ramparts of the fort. Even though they were ordered from their firing positions by Admiral Porter's second in command, Porter blamed the Marines for the failure of the naval portion of the assault to take the fort.

The Rest of the 19th Century
          The remainder of the 19th century would be a period of declining strength and introspection about the mission of the Marine Corps. The Navy's transition from sail to steam put into question the need for Marines on naval ships. Meanwhile, the Marines would serve as a convenient resource for interventions and landings to protect American lives and property in foreign countries. The Marines saw action in Formosa (1867) and Korea (1871). The Marines took part in naval brigade landing exercises in Key West in 1875 after the Virginius Affair, a war with Spain scare. The Marines took part in more naval brigade exercises on Gardiner's Island in August 1884 and Newport, RI in November 1887. Altogether, the Marines were involved in over 28 separate interventions in the 30 years from the end of the civil war to the end of the 19th century, including China, Formosa, Japan, Nicaragua, Uruguay, Mexico, Korea, Panama, Hawaii, Egypt, Haiti, Samoa, Argentina, Chile, and Colombia. They would also be called upon to stem political and labor unrest within the United States. Sometime during this period, war correspondent Richard Harding Davis coined the phrase "The Marines have landed and have the situation well in hand".

          Under Commandant Jacob Zeilin's term (1864–1876), Marine customs and traditions took shape. The Corps adopted the Marine Corps emblem in essentially its modern form on 19 November 1868, borrowing the globe from the Royal Marines, but introducing the fouled anchor and an American bald eagle. In 1869, the Corps adopted a blue-black evening jacket and trousers encrusted with gold braid, that survives today as officers's mess dress. It was also during this time that "The Marines' Hymn" was first heard. Around 1883, the Marines adopted their current motto "Semper Fidelis" (Latin for "Always Faithful," often shortened by Marines to "Semper Fi"). In 1885 1st Lt. H.K. Gilman USMC wrote the first manual for enlisted Marines, Marines’ manual: prepared for the use of the enlisted men of the U.S. Marine Corps and in 1886 the first landing manual The naval brigade and operations ashore. Previous to this, the only landing instructions available were those in the Ordnance Instructions for the United States Navy. John Philip Sousa, previously an apprentice in the Marine Band as a child, returned to lead the band in 1880 at the age of 25, making a name for himself and the Band with his composed marches.

          During the Spanish-American War (1898), Marines would lead U.S. forces ashore in the Philippines, Cuba, and Puerto Rico, demonstrating their readiness for deployment. The 1st or Huntington's Battalion captured Guantánamo Bay, Cuba, in order to set up an advanced base and coaling station for the fleet. In the Battle of Cuzco Well, a Spanish counterattack was aided by mistaken naval gunfire from the USS Dolphin and two Marines received Medals of Honor for braving both Spanish rifle fire and US Navy shells and signalling the Dolphin to stop. Marine detachments under Lt. John A. LeJeune landed in Fajardo, Puerto Rico in order to seize boats for a subsequent landing by US Army forces. While they were waiting for the Army, they were attacked by strong Spanish forces in a night attack. Upon a prearranged signal, the Marines and sailors who were occupying the town's lighthouse, took cover while the Navy ships bombarded the area around the lighthouse. They left the next day when they found out that the Army commander had changed his mind and landed on the other end of the island at Guánica. There Marines and Bluejackets landed first in order to capture boats and lighters for the Army landing.

Early 1900s
          The successful landing at Guantanamo and the readiness of the Marines for the Spanish-American War were in contrast to the slow mobilization of the U.S. Army in the war. In 1900, the General Board of the U.S. Navy decided to give the Marine Corps primary responsibility for the seizure and defense of advanced naval bases. The Marine Corps formed an expeditionary battalion to be permanently based in the Caribbean. This battalion and Marine detachments in the Caribbean practiced landings in 1902 in preparation for war with Germany over Venezuela. Under then-Major John Lejeune, in 1903, it also undertook landing exercises with the Army in Maine, and in November 1903, blocked Columbian Army forces sent to quash a Panamanian rebellion, an action which led to the independence of Panama. The Marine Corps Advanced Base School was founded as was the Advance Base Force, the prototype of the Fleet Marine Force.

Between 1900 and 1916, the Marine Corps continued its record of participation in foreign expeditions, including the Philippine-American War, the Boxer Rebellion (1899-1901), Panama, the Cuban Pacifications, Veracruz, Haiti, Santo Domingo, and Nicaragua. Action in these and other places throughout the Caribbean such as Haiti and Nicaragua continued after World War I. These actions became known as "The Banana Wars", and the experiences gained in counter-insurgency and guerrilla operations during this period were consolidated into the Small Wars Manual in 1935.

World War I


Painting of the Battle of Belleau Wood (1918)

          In World War I, battle-tested, veteran Marines served a central role in the U.S. entry into the conflict. Unlike the U.S. and British armies, the Marine Corps had a deep pool of officers and NCO's with battle experience, and experienced a relatively smaller expansion. It is here that Marines fought their celebrated battle at Belleau Wood, then the largest in the history of the Corps. There, the Marines' reputation in modern history was created. Rallying under the battle cries of "Retreat? Hell, we just got here!" (Captain Lloyd Williams) and "Come on, you sons of bitches, do you want to live forever?" (GySgt. Dan Daly), the Marines drove German forces from the area. While its previous expeditionary experience had not earned it much acclaim in the Western world, the Marines' fierceness and toughness earned them the respect of the Germans, who rated them of storm-trooper quality. Though Marines and American media reported that Germans had nicknamed them "Teufelhunden" or "Devil Dogs", there is no evidence of this in German records. Nevertheless, the name stuck.

          The French government renamed Belleau Wood "Bois de la Brigade de Marine", or "Wood of the Marine Brigade", and decorated both the 5th and 6th Regiments with the Croix de Guerre. Franklin Delano Roosevelt, then Secretary of the Navy, stated that the 5th and 6th Marine Regiments would henceforth wear the French Fourragere on the left shoulder of their dress uniforms.

          The Marine Corps had entered the war with 511 officers and 13,214 enlisted personnel and, by 11 November 1918, had reached a strength of 2,400 officers and 70,000 men. The war cost the Marines 2,461 dead and 9,520 wounded.

          Between the wars, the Marine Corps was headed by Commandant John A. Lejeune, another well-beloved commandant. Under his leadership, the Marine Corps presciently studied and developed amphibious techniques that would be of great use in World War II. Many officers, including LtCol Earl Hancock "Pete" Ellis foresaw a Pacific war with Japan and took preparations for such a conflict. While stationed in China, then LtCol. Victor H. Krulak observed Japanese amphibious techniques in 1937. Through 1941, as the prospect of war grew, the Marine Corps pushed urgently for joint amphibious exercises, and acquired amphibious equipment such as the Higgins boat which would prove of great use in the upcoming conflict.

World War II
          In World War II, the Marines played a central role in the Pacific War; the Corps expanded from two brigades to two corps with six divisions, and five air wings with 132 squadrons. In addition, 20 Defense Battalions were also set up, as well as a Parachute Battalion. The battles of Guadalcanal, Bougainville, Tarawa, Tinian, Saipan, Peleliu, Iwo Jima, Guam, and Okinawa saw fierce fighting between U.S. Marines and the Imperial Japanese Army. The secrecy afforded their communications by the now-famous Navajo Code Talkers program is widely seen as having contributed significantly to their success.

          During the battle of Iwo Jima, photographer Joe Rosenthal took the famous photo Raising of the Flag on Iwo Jima of five Marines and one Navy corpsman raising the American flag on Mt. Suribachi. Secretary of the Navy James Forrestal, who had come ashore earlier that day to observe the progress of the troops, said of the flag raising on Iwo Jima, "...the raising of that flag on Suribachi means a Marine Corps for the next five hundred years." The acts of the Marines during the war added to their already significant popular reputation, and the USMC War Memorial in Arlington, Virginia was dedicated in 1954.

          By the war’s end, the Corps had grown to include six divisions, five air wings and supporting troops totaling about 485,000 Marines. 19,733 Marines were killed and 68,207 wounded during WWII and 82 received the Medal of Honor.

          Despite Secretary Forrestal's prediction, the Corps faced an immediate institutional crisis following the war. Army brass pushing for a strengthened and reorganized defense establishment also attempted to fold the Marine mission and assets into the Navy and Army. Drawing on hastily assembled Congressional support, the Marine Corps rebuffed such efforts to legislatively dismantle the Corps, resulting in statutory protection of the Marine Corps in the National Security Act of 1947.

          Shortly after, in 1952, the Douglas-Manfield Bill afforded the Commandant an equal voice with the Joint Chiefs of Staff on matters relating to the Marines, and established the structure of three divisions and air wings that remains today. This allowed the Corps to permanently maintain a division and air wing in the Far East and participate in various small wars in Southeast Asia - in the Tachen Islands, Taiwan, Laos, Thailand, and South Vietnam.

In Korea


Medal of Honor recipient First Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez leading his men over the seawall at Inchon on the day of his death.

          The Korean War (1950 - 1953) saw the hastily formed Provisional Marine Brigade holding the line at the Pusan Perimeter. To execute a flanking maneuver, General Douglas MacArthur called on Marine air and ground forces to make an amphibious landing at the Inchon. The successful landing resulted in the collapse of North Korean lines and the pursuit of North Korean forces north near the Yalu River until the entrance of the People's Republic of China into the war. Chinese troops surrounded, surprised and overwhelmed the overextended and outnumbered American forces. However, unlike the Eighth Army, which retreated in disarray, the 1st Marine Division regrouped and inflicted heavy casualties during their fighting withdrawal to the coast. Now known as the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, it entered Marine lore as an example of the toughness and resolve of the Marine. Marines would continue a battle of attrition around the 38th Parallel until the 1953 armistice.

          The Korean War saw the Marine Corps expand from 75,000 regulars to a force, by the end of the conflict in 1953, of 261,000 Marines, most of whom were Reservists. 4,267 Marines were killed and 23,744 wounded during the war and 42 were awarded the Medal of Honor.

          In 1958, Marines were dispatched to Lebanon as part of Operation Blue Bat in response to the crisis there.

Vietnam War


Dong Ha, Vietnam. Operation Hastings - Marines on patrol. 07/1966

          The Marines also played an important role in the Vietnam War at battles such as Da Nang, Hue, and Khe Sanh. The Marines operated in the northern I Corps regions of South Vietnam and fought both a constant guerilla war against the NLF and an off and on conventional war against NVA regulars. Marines also conducted the less well-known Combined Action Program that implemented unconventional techniques for counterinsurgency warfare. The Marine presence was withdrawn in 1971, but returned briefly in 1975 to evacuate Saigon and attempt to rescue the crew of the Mayagüez. 13,091 Marines were killed and 51,392 wounded during the war. Fifty-seven were awarded the Medal of Honor.

          Returning from Vietnam, the Marine Corps hit one of the lowest points in its history with high rates of courts-martial, non-judicial punishments, unauthorized absences, and outright desertions. The re-making of the Marine Corps began in the late 1970s when policies for discharging inadequate Marines were relaxed leading to the removal of the worst performing ones. Once the quality of new recruits started to improve, the Marines began reforming their NCO corps, an absolutely vital element in the functioning of the Marine Corps.

          After Vietnam, Marines resumed their expeditionary role, participating in Operation Urgent Fury and Operation Just Cause. On 23 October 1983, a Marine barracks in Lebanon was bombed, causing the highest peacetime losses to the Corps in its history (220 Marines of the 24th MAU were killed) and leading to the American withdrawal from Lebanon. Marines were also responsible for liberating Kuwait during the Persian Gulf War (1990–1991).

          In 1990, the 22nd and 26th Marine Expeditionary Units conducted Operation Sharp Edge, a noncombatant evacuation operation, or NEO, in the west African city of Monrovia, Liberia. Liberia suffered from civil war at the time, and civilian citizens of the United States and other countries could not leave via conventional means. Sharp Edge ended in success. Only one reconnaissance team came under fire, with no casualties incurred on either side, and the Marines evacuated several hundred civilians within hours to U.S. Navy vessels waiting offshore.

          U.S. Marines participated in combat operations in Somalia (1992–1995) during Operations Restore Hope, Restore Hope II, and United Shield. While Operation Restore Hope was designated as a humanitarian relief effort, Marine ground forces frequently engaged Somali militiamen in combat. Elements of Battalion Landing Team 2/9 (2nd Battalion, 9th Marines) with 15th MEU were among the first troops of the United Nations effort to land in Somalia in December 1992, while Marines of Battalion Landing Team 3/1 (3rd Battalion 1st Marines) participated in the final withdrawal of United Nations troops from Somalia in 1995.

Operation Desert Storm
          Marines were also responsible for liberating Kuwait during the Persian Gulf War (1990–1991), as the Army made an attack to the west directly into Iraq. The I Marine Expeditionary Force had a strength of 92,990 making Operation Desert Storm the largest Marine Corps operation in history. A total of 23 Marines were killed in action or later died of wounds from the time the air war was launched on January 16 until the cease-fire took effect 43 days later.

Bosnian War
          In 1995, Marines performed a successful mission in Bosnia, rescuing Captain Scott O'Grady, a downed Air Force fighter pilot, in what is called a TRAP (Tactical Recovery of Aircraft and Personnel).

Global War on Terror


Marines from 1st Battalion 7th Marines enter a palace in Baghdad

          Marines of the 15th Marine Expeditionary Unit and 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit were the first conventional forces into Afghanistan in support of Operation Enduring Freedom in November 2001. Since then Marine battalions and flying squadrons have been rotating through on seven month tours engaging leftover Taliban and Al Queda forces and also helping to rebuild the war torn country. U.S. Marines of the 24th Marine Expeditionary Unit flooded into the Taliban-held town of Garmser April 29, 2008 , in Helmand province, in the first major American operation in the region in years.

          Most recently, the Marines have served prominently in Operation Iraqi Freedom where a light, mobile force was and is especially needed. I MEF along with the Army's 3rd Infantry Division spearheaded the 2003 invasion of Iraq and perhaps most notably, the Marines spearheaded both assaults on the city of Fallujah in April and November 2004. For their performance during the invasion, the Marines of I MEF received the Presidential Unit Citation (US), the first time a Marine unit has received that award since 1968.

Organization of the United States Marine Corps
          The Department of the Navy, led by the Secretary of the Navy (SECNAV), oversees both the Marine Corps and the Navy. The most senior Marine officer is the Commandant of the Marine Corps, responsible for organizing, recruiting, training, and equipping the Marine Corps so that it is ready for operation under the command of the Unified Combatant Commanders. The Marine Corps is organized into four principal subdivisions: Headquarters Marine Corps (HQMC), the Operating Forces, the Supporting Establishment, and the Marine Forces Reserve (MARFORRES or USMCR).

          The Operating Forces are further subdivided into three categories: Marine Corps Forces (MARFOR) assigned to unified commands, Marine Corps Security Forces guarding high-risk naval installations, and Marine Corps Security Guard detachments at American embassies. Under the "Forces for Unified Commands" memo, Marine Corps Forces are assigned to each of the regional unified commands at the discretion of the Secretary of Defense with the approval of the President. Since 1991, the Marine Corps has maintained component headquarters at each of the regional unified combatant commands. Marine Corps Forces are further divided into Marine Forces Command (MARFORCOM) and Marine Forces Pacific (MARFORPAC), each headed by a Lieutenant General. MARFORCOM has operational control of the II Marine Expeditionary Force; MARFORPAC has operational control of the I Marine Expeditionary Force and III Marine Expeditionary Force.

          The Supporting Establishment includes Marine Corps Combat Development Command (MCCDC), Marine Corps Recruit Depots, Marine Corps Logistics Command, Marine bases and air stations, Recruiting Command, and the Marine Band.

Relationship with other Services
          In general, the Marine Corps shares many resources with the other branches of the United States military. However, the Corps has consistently sought to maintain its own identity with regards to mission, funding, and assets, while utilizing the support available from the larger branches. While the Marine Corps has far fewer installations both in the US and worldwide than the other branches, most Army posts, Naval stations, and Air Force bases have a Marine presence.

United States Army
          The Marine Corps combat capabilities in some ways overlap those of the United States Army, the latter having historically viewed the Corps as encroaching on the Army's capabilities and competing for funding, missions, and renown. The attitude dates back to the founding of the Continental Marines, when General George Washington refused to allow the initial Marine battalions to be drawn from among his Continental Army. Most significantly, in the aftermath of World War II, Army efforts to restructure the American defense establishment included the dissolution of the Corps and the folding of its capabilities into the other services. Leading this movement were such prominent Army officers as General Dwight D. Eisenhower and Army Chief of Staff George C. Marshall.[38] While the rivalry is still present today, most Marines and Soldiers adopt a more cooperative attitude when operating jointly. Doctrinally, Marines focus on being expeditionary and independent, while the Army tends more toward overwhelming force with a large support element. The emphasis on mobility and combined arms makes the Marine Corps a much lighter force than the Army. The Marine Corps maintains a larger percentage of its personnel and assets in the combat arms (infantry, artillery, armor, and close air support) than the Army. However, the Army maintains much larger and diverse armor, artillery, ground transport, and logistics forces, while the Marines have a larger and more diverse aviation arm, which is usually organic to the MAGTF. Marines tend to have better cohesion as an expeditionary unit, as well as being completely amphibious.

          The Marines often utilize the Army for the acquisition of ground equipment (as well as benefiting from Army research and development resources), training resources, and other support concepts. The majority of vehicles and weapons are shared with, modified, or inherited from Army programs.

          Culturally, Marines and Soldiers share most of the common US military slang and terminology, but the Corps utilizes a large number of naval terms and traditions incompatible with the Army lifestyle. Many Marines regard their culture to have a deeper warrior tradition, with the ethos that every Marine is a rifleman and emphasis on cross-training and combat readiness despite actual job, be it infantry or otherwise.

United States Navy


The Amphibious Assault Ship USS Belleau Wood

          The Marine Corps' sister service under the Department of the Navy is the United States Navy. As a result, the Navy and Marine Corps have a close relationship, more so than with other branches of the military. Whitepapers and promotional literature have commonly used the phrase "Navy-Marine Corps Team", or to "the Naval Service." Both the Chief of Naval Operations (CNO) and Commandant of the Marine Corps report directly to the Secretary of the Navy.

          Cooperation between the two services begins with the training and instruction of Marines. The Corps receives a significant portion of its officers from the United States Naval Academy and Naval Reserve Officer Training Corps (NROTC). NROTC staff includes Marine instructors, while Marine drill instructors contribute to training of officers in the Navy's Officer Candidate School. Marine aviators are trained in the Naval Aviation training pipeline.

          Training alongside each other is viewed as critical, as the Navy provides transport, logistical, and combat support to put Marine units into the fight, for example, the Maritime Prepositioning ships and naval gunfire support. Most Marine aviation assets ultimately derive from the Navy, with regards to acquisition and funding, and Navy aircraft carriers typically deploy with a Marine squadron alongside Navy squadrons. Marines do not recruit or train noncombatants such as chaplains or medical/dental personnel; naval personnel fill these roles. Some of these sailors, particularly Hospital Corpsmen and Religious Programs Specialists, generally wear Marine uniforms emblazoned with Navy insignia. Conversely, the Marine Corps is responsible for conducting land operations to support naval campaigns, including the seizure of naval and air bases. Both services operate a network security team in conjunction.

          Marines and Sailors share many naval traditions, especially terminology and customs. Marine Corps Medal of Honor recipients wear the Navy variant of this and other awards; and with few exceptions, the awards and badges of the Navy and Marine Corps are identical. The Navy's Blue Angels flight demonstration team is staffed by both Navy and Marine officers and enlisted men, and includes a Marine C-130 Hercules aircraft.

          In 2007, the U.S. Marine Corps joined with the Navy and Coast Guard to adopt a new maritime strategy called A Cooperative Strategy for 21st Century Seapower that raises the notion of prevention of war to the same philosophical level as the conduct of war. This new strategy charts a course for the Navy, Coast Guard and Marine Corps to work collectively with each other and international partners to prevent regional crises, manmade or natural, from occurring or reacting quickly should one occur to avoid negative impacts to the United States.

United States Air Force
          While the majority of Marine aviation assets ultimately derive from the Navy, some support is drawn from the United States Air Force. The Marine Corps also makes extensive use of the Air Mobility Command to airlift Marines and equipment around the globe.

Air-Ground Task Forces
          Today, the basic framework for deployable Marine units is the Marine Air-Ground Task Force (MAGTF), a flexible structure of varying size. A MAGTF integrates a ground combat element (GCE), an aviation combat element (ACE), and a logistics combat element (LCE) under a common command element (CE), capable of operating independently or as part of a larger coalition. The MAGTF structure reflects a strong tradition in the Corps towards self-sufficiency and a commitment to combined arms, both essential assets to an expeditionary force often called upon to act independently in discrete, time-sensitive situations. The history of the Marine Corps as well has led to a wariness of overreliance on its sister services, and towards joint operations in general.

          A MAGTF varies in size from the smallest, a Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU), based around a reinforced infantry battalion and a composite squadron, up to the largest, a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF), which ties together a Division, an Air Wing, and a Logistics Group under a MEF Headquarters Group. The seven MEUs constantly rotate between themselves and their attached components to maintain a high state of readiness. Each MEU is rated as capable of performing special operations. The three MEFs contain the vast majority of Active duty deployable forces.

Special Warfare 
United States Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command and Capable Forces.

          Although the notion of a Marine special forces contribution to the U.S. Special Operations Command (USSOCOM) was considered as early as the founding of USSOCOM in the 1980s, it was resisted by the Marine Corps. Then-Commandant Paul X. Kelley expressed the popular belief that Marines should support Marines, and that the Corps should not fund a special warfare capability that would not support Marine operations. However, much of the resistance from within the Corps dissipated when Marine leaders watched the Corps' 15th and 26th MEU(SOC)s "sit on the sidelines" during the very early stages of Operation Enduring Freedom while other special operations units actively engaged in operations in Afghanistan. After a three-year development period, the Corps agreed in 2006 to supply a 2,600-strong unit, Marine Forces Special Operations Command (MARSOC), which would answer directly to USSOCOM.

Command Leadership


James T. Conway,
Commandant of the Marine Corps

General Conway was born in Walnut Ridge, Arkansas and is a graduate of Southeast Missouri State University. He was commissioned in 1970 as an infantry officer. His company grade assignments included multiple platoon and company commander billets with both the 1st and 2nd Marine Divisions; Executive Officer of the Marine Detachment aboard the USS Kitty Hawk (CVA-63); series and company commander at the Marine Corps Recruit Depot in San Diego; aide to the Commanding General, and Director, Sea School.
As a field grade officer, he commanded two companies of officer students and taught tactics at The Basic School; he also served as operations officer for the 31st Marine Amphibious Unit to include contingency operations off Beirut, Lebanon; and as Senior Aide to the Chairman, Joint Chiefs of Staff. Promoted to Lieutenant Colonel, he was reassigned to the 2nd Marine Division as Division G-3 Operations Officer before assuming command of 3rd Battalion, 2nd Marines in January 1990.

          He commanded Battalion Landing Team 3/2 during Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm. Selected for colonel, he served as the Ground Colonels' Monitor, and as Commanding Officer of The Basic School. His general officer duties included Deputy Director of Operations, J-34, Combating Terrorism, Joint Staff, Washington, D.C.; and President, Marine Corps University at Quantico, Va. After promotion to Major General, he assumed command of the 1st Marine Division. In November 2002, Major General Conway was promoted to Lieutenant General and assumed command of the I Marine Expeditionary Force. He commanded I Marine Expeditionary Force during two combat tours in Iraq. In 2004, he was reassigned as the Director of Operations, J-3, Joint Staff, in Washington, D.C.

          General Conway graduated with honors from The Basic School, the U.S. Army Infantry Officers Advanced Course, the Marine Corps Command and Staff College and the Air War College.

General Conway's personal decorations include the Defense Distinguished Service Medal with palm, Navy Distinguished Service Medal, Legion of Merit, Defense Meritorious Service Medal, Meritorious Service Medal with two Gold Stars, Navy Commendation Medal, Navy Achievement Medal and the Combat Action Ribbon.


Carlton W. Kent,
Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps

          Sgt. Maj. Kent completed recruit training at Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, S.C., in March 1976 and was assigned to the 1st Marine Brigade. In May 1978, Sgt. Maj. Kent was transferred to Marine Security Guard Battalion where he served as a Marine Security Guard. He served at American Embassy, Kinshasa, Zaire and Panama. In June 1981, Sgt. Maj. Kent transferred to Fort Benning for Airborne School and Parachute Riggers School at Fort Lee, Va. In June of 1982 he was assigned as 2nd Air Delivery Platoon Commander, and parachute rigger billets in various commands aboard Camp Lejeune, N.C.

          In February 1983, Sgt. Maj. Kent was transferred to Marine Corps Recruit Depot, San Diego, Calif., for duty as a drill instructor, senior drill instructor and battalion drill master with First Battalion. In January 1985, he was meritoriously promoted to Gunnery Sergeant.
In May 1985, Sgt. Maj. Kent transferred to 3rd Air Delivery Platoon as Platoon Sergeant. In June 1986 he transferred to Engineer Company, BSSG-1 1st Marine Brigade, Hawaii, as Company Gunnery Sergeant. In March 1988, Sgt. Maj. Kent was assigned to Noncommissioned Officers School, 1st Marine Brigade as the NCOIC.

          In February 1989, Sgt. Maj. Kent transferred to Marine Corps Recruit Depot, Parris Island, S.C., as a student at Drill Instructor School. After completion of Drill Instructor School, Sgt. Maj. Kent was assigned to Naval Aviation Officers Candidate School in Pensacola, Fla., as a Drill Instructor, Chief Drill Instructor, and First Sergeant. In February 1990, Sgt. Maj. Kent was promoted to First Sergeant and assigned as First Sergeant, MATSG, Pensacola, Fla.

          I In June 1992, he transferred to 4th Marine Regiment for duty. In June 1993, he transferred to the Army Sergeants Major Academy, Fort Bliss, Texas. After graduation, in February 1994 he was transferred and assigned as First Sergeant, Battery L, 3rd Battalion, 12th Marine Regiment. In December 1994, he assumed the duties as Sergeant Major, 3rd Battalion, 12th Marine Regiment. In August 1997, Sgt. Maj. Kent was transferred to the Marine Corps Recruit Depot, San Diego, Calif., where he was assigned duties as Sergeant Major 2nd Recruit Training Battalion and in September 1999 as Sergeant Major Recruit Training Regiment.

          In May 2001, he was transferred to Marine Forces Europe/FMF Europe, Stuttgart, Germany, where he was assigned the duties as the Sergeant Major of Marine Forces Europe. In April 2004, he was transferred to I Marine Expeditionary Force, Camp Pendleton, Calif., to serve as the Sergeant Major of the I Marine Expeditionary Force. Sgt. Maj. Kent assumed his current post as the 16th Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps on 25 April 2007.
 

          As stated above, the Commandant of the Marine Corps is the highest-ranking officer of the Marine Corps; though he may not be the senior officer by time in grade. He is both the symbolic and functional head of the Corps, and holds a position of very high esteem among Marines. The Commandant has the U.S. Code Title 10 responsibility to man, train, and equip the Marine Corps. He does not serve as a direct battlefield commander. The Commandant is a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and reports to the Secretary of the Navy.

          The Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps acts as a deputy to the Commandant. The Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps is the senior enlisted Marine, and acts as an advisor to the Commandant. Headquarters Marine Corps comprises the rest of the Commandant's counsel and staff, with deputy commandants that oversee various aspects of the Corps assets and capabilities.

          The current and 34th Commandant is General James T. Conway, who assumed the position on 13 November 2006. As of October 2007, Marine General James E. Cartwright (Vice Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff) is senior in terms of time in grade and billet to the commandant. The 31st and current Assistant Commandant is James F. Amos, while the 16th and current Sergeant Major is Carlton W. Kent.

Culture
Culture of the United States Marine Corps

          As in any military organization, the official and unofficial traditions of the Marine Corps serve to reinforce camaraderie and set the service apart from others. The Corps' embrace of its rich culture and history is cited as a reason for its high esprit de corps.

Official Traditions and Customs
          The Marines' Hymn dates back to the 19th century and is the oldest official song in the U.S. Armed Forces. The Marine motto Semper Fidelis means always faithful in Latin, often appearing as Semper Fi; also the name of the official march of the Corps, composed by John Phillip Sousa. The mottos "Fortitudine" (With Fortitude); By Sea and by Land, a translation of the Royal Marines' Per Mare, Per Terram; and To the Shores of Tripoli were used until 1868. The Marine Corps emblem is the Eagle, Globe, and Anchor, sometimes abbreviated "EGA", adopted in 1868. The Marine Corps seal includes the emblem, also is found on the flag of the United States Marine Corps, and establishes scarlet and gold as the official colors.

          Two styles of swords are worn by Marines: the officers' Mameluke Sword, similar to the Persian shamshir presented to Lt. Presley O'Bannon after the Battle of Derna, and the Marine NCO sword, the only sword authorized to be carried by any enlisted service members in the U.S. The Marine Corps Birthday is celebrated every year on the 10th of November in a cake-cutting ceremony where the first slice of cake is given to the oldest Marine present, who in turn hands it off to the youngest Marine present. The celebration also includes a reading of Marine Corps Order 47, Commandant Lejeune's Birthday Message. Close Order Drill is heavily emphasized early on in a Marine's initial training, incorporated into most formal events, and is used to teach discipline by instilling habits of precision and automatic response to orders, increase the confidence of junior officers and noncommissioned officers through the exercise of command and give Marines an opportunity to handle individual weapons.

An important part of the Marine Corps culture is the traditional seafaring naval terminology derived from its history with the Navy.

Unofficial Traditions and Customs

Marines have several generic nicknames:
Jarhead has several oft-disputed explanations.
Gyrene has dropped out of popular use.
Leatherneck refers to a leather collar formerly part of the Marine uniform during the Revolutionary War period.
Devil Dog is oft-disputed as well, but the tradition has expanded to include the bulldog's association with the Corps, especially as a mascot.

Some other unofficial traditions include mottos and exclamations:
Oorah is common among Marines, being similar in function and purpose to the Army's hooah and the Navy's hooyah cries. Many possible etymologies have been offered for the term.
Semper Fi, Mac was a common and preferred form of greeting in times past.
Improvise, Adapt and Overcome has become an adopted mantra in many units.

Veteran Marines
          The ethos that "Once a Marine, Always a Marine" has led to the objection to the use of the term "ex-Marine", leading to a myriad of forms of address for those no longer on active duty:
"Veteran Marine" or "Prior-service Marine" can refer to anyone who has been discharged from the Corps.
"Retired Marine" refers to those who have completed 20 or more years of service and formally retired.
"Former Marine" is considered acceptable among those who are honorably discharged from the United States Marine Corps.
"Sir" or "Ma'am" is appropriate out of respect.
According to one of the "Commandant's White Letters" from Commandant Alfred M. Gray, Jr., referring to a Marine by their last earned rank is appropriate.

Marines that have left service with a less than full honorable discharge might still be considered Marines (depending on the view of the individual), however that title is also in keeping with a stigma, and many will avoid the issue altogether by addressing the individual by name with no other title.

Famous Marines
List of notable United States Marines and List of historically important U.S. Marines:

          Many famous Americans, such as the composer John Philip Sousa who directed the United States Marine Band for 13 years, have served in the Marine Corps. Tom Monaghan, the founder of Domino's Pizza, is a Marine. In politics, Senator Zell Miller, pundit James Carville, Secretary of the Navy and U.S. Senator Jim Webb and military analysts Anthony Zinni, Joseph Hoar and Bernard E. Trainor are Marines. Donald P. Bellisario the creator of Quantum Leap, Magnum P.I., JAG, NCIS , and Airwolf is a veteran Marine. Baseball Hall of Famers Tom Seaver, Ted Williams, Rod Carew, Roberto Clemente, Eddie Collins, and Bill Veeck all served in the Marines. Professional boxer Barney Ross served in the Marines, and so did former heavyweight champions Gene Tunney, Ken Norton & Leon Spinks. Football coaches Vince Dooley and Hayden Fry served as well. Six astronauts, including Senator John Glenn, Charles F. Bolden, Jr., "Story" Musgrave, and Fred Haise, are Marine aviators. Several have succeeded in the entertainment industry, including actors Steve McQueen, Tyrone Power, Don Adams, Gene Hackman, Harvey Keitel, Lee Marvin and Drew Carey, talk show host Steve Wilkos, rock and roll singers The Everly Brothers, former Ramones member Christopher Joseph Ward (C. J. Ramone), and reggae musician Orville Burrell (Shaggy). Writer Leon Uris served in the Marines before publishing his famous novels Exodus, Trinity, and QB VII. R. Lee Ermey and comedian Jonathan Winters were both drill instructors prior to their renown. Oliver North is a veteran Marine, implicated in the Iran–Contra affair. Smedley Butler received two Medal of Honor awards and spoke out against war profiteers once he retired in War is a Racket. In addition, many films feature the U.S. Marine Corps.[19] Lee Harvey Oswald, the man suspected in the assassination of President John F. Kennedy was a Marine, as was Charles Whitman, who killed 16 people and wounded 31 others at the University of Texas at Austin in 1966.

United States Marine Corps

Active
November 10, 1775 - present
Country
United States
Branch
Marine Corps
Type
Amphibious
Role
Naval Infantry
Size
201,031 active (as of 2/28/2009)
40,000 reserve (as of 2009)
Part Of
Department of Defense
Department of the Navy
Headquarters
Headquarters Marine Corps
Nickname
The Few, The Proud-Leatherneck-Grunt-Jarhead-Gyrene-Devil Dog
Motto
Semper Fidelis-Always Faithful
Colors
Scarlet & Gold         
March
Semper Fidelis
Engagements
Revolutionary War
Quasi-War
Barbary Wars
War of 1812
Seminole Wars
Mexican–American War
American Civil War
Spanish–American War
Philippine–American War
Boxer Rebellion
The Banana Wars
World War I
World War II
Korean War
Vietnam War
Gulf War
Kosovo War
Operation Enduring Freedom
Operation Iraqi Freedom

Insignia
Eagle, Globe, and Anchor
Aircraft Flown:
Attack
AV-8B, F/A-18D
Electronic Warfare
EA-6B
Fighter
F/A-18A/C
Helicopter
AH-1W, UH-1N, CH-46E, CH-53D, CH-53E, MV-22
Reconnaissance
RQ-7, ScanEagle
Transport
KC-130

Marine Corps Units, Associations, Organizations and Addendums:

Divisions
1st Marine Division
2nd Marine Division
3rd Marine Division
4th Marine Division

Infantry Units
1st Marine Regiment 
2nd Marine Regiment
3rd Marine Regiment
4th Marine Regiment
5th Marine Regiment
6th Marine Regiment
7th Marine Regiment
8th Marine Regiment
9th Marine Regiment 
23rd Marine Regiment
24th Marine Regiment
25th Marine Regiment
1st Battalion, 1st Marines
1st Battalion, 2nd Marines
1st Battalion, 3rd Marines
1st Battalion, 4th Marines
1st Battalion, 5th Marines
1st Battalion, 6th Marines
1st Battalion, 7th Marines
1st Battalion, 8th Marines
1st Battalion, 9th Marines 
1st Battalion, 23rd Marines
1st Battalion, 24th Marines
1st Battalion, 25th Marines
1st Division Reconnaissance Company
1st Force Reconnaissance Company
1st Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion
1st Marine Special Operations Battalion
2d Marine Special Operations Battalion
2nd Battalion, 1st Marines
2nd Battalion, 23rd Marines
2nd Battalion, 3rd Marines
2nd Battalion, 4th Marines
2nd Battalion, 5th Marines
2nd Battalion, 6th Marines
2nd Battalion, 7th Marines
2nd Battalion, 8th Marines
2nd Battalion, 9th Marines
2nd Battalion, 24th Marines
2nd Battalion, 25th Marines
2nd Battalion, 2nd Marines
2nd Reconnaissance Battalion
2nd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion
2nd Assault Amphibian Battalion 
3rd Battalion, 1st Marines
3rd Battalion, 2nd Marines
3rd Battalion, 3rd Marines
3rd Battalion, 4th Marines
3rd Battalion, 5th Marines
3rd Battalion, 6th Marines
3rd Battalion, 7th Marines
3rd Battalion, 8th Marines
3rd Battalion, 9th Marines
3rd Battalion, 23rd Marines
3rd Battalion, 24th Marines
3rd Battalion, 25th Marines
3rd Force Reconnaissance Battalion
3rd Force Reconnaissance Company 
3rd Assault Amphibian Battalion
Anti-Terrorism Battalion, 4th Marine Expeditionary Brigade (AT)
Headquarters and Service Battalion
Regimental Combat Team 1
Regimental Combat Team 5
Regimental Combat Team 6
Regimental Combat Team 8
Special Operations Training Group
Special Operations Training Group
TOW Training Company
Unit Deployment Battalion
Weapons Company

Artillery Units
10th Marine Regiment
11th Marine Regiment
12th Marine Regiment
14th Marine Regiment
1st Battalion, 10th Marines
1st Battalion, 11th Marines
1st Battalion, 12th Marines
1st Battalion, 14th Marines
2nd Battalion, 10th Marines
2nd Battalion, 11th Marines
2nd Battalion, 14th Marines
3rd Battalion, 10th Marines
3rd Battalion, 14th Marines
4th Battalion, 14th Marines
5th Battalion, 11th Marines
5th Battalion, 10th Marines
5th Battalion, 14th Marines

Aviation
1st Marine Aircraft Wing
1st Stinger Battery
2nd Marine Aircraft Wing
3rd Marine Aircraft Wing
3rd Marine Aircraft Wing (FWD)
4th Marine Aircraft Wing
Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron 152
Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron 234
Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron 252
Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron 352
Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron 452
Marine Air Control Group 18
Marine Air Control Group 28
Marine Air Control Group 38
Marine Air Control Group 48
Marine Air Control Group 48 Headquarters
Marine Air Control Squadron 1
Marine Air Control Squadron 2
Marine Air Control Squadron 23
Marine Air Control Squadron 24
Marine Air Control Squadron 4
Marine Air Support Squadron 1
Marine Air Support Squadron 2
Marine Air Support Squadron 3
Marine Air Support Squadron 6
Marine Aircraft Group 11
Marine Aircraft Group 12
Marine Aircraft Group 13
Marine Aircraft Group 14
Marine Aircraft Group 16
Marine Aircraft Group 24
Marine Aircraft Group 26
Marine Aircraft Group 29
Marine Aircraft Group 31
Marine Aircraft Group 36
Marine Aircraft Group 39
Marine Aircraft Group 41
Marine Aircraft Group 42
Marine Aircraft Group 46
Marine Aircraft Group 49
Marine All Weather Fighter Attack Squadron 242
Marine Attack Squadron 214
Marine Attack Squadron 223
Marine Attack Squadron 231
Marine Attack Squadron 311
Marine Attack Squadron 513
Marine Attack Squadron 542
Marine Attack Training Squadron 203
Marine Aviation Detachment China Lake
Marine Aviation Detachment Patuxent River
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 11
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 12
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 13
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 14
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 16
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 24
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 26
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 29
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 31
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 36
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 39
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 41
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 42
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 46
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 49
Marine Aviation Weapons and Tactics Squadron 1
Marine Corps Air Facility Quantico Meteorology & Oceanographic Division 
Marine Corps Air Facility Quantico
Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort
Marine Corps Air Station Camp Pendleton
Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point
Marine Corps Air Station Futenma
Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni
Marine Corps Air Station Miramar
Marine Corps Air Station New River
Marine Corps Air Station Yuma
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron (All Weather)-332
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron (All Weather)-533
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 112
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 115
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 121
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 122
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 142
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 212
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 225
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 232
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 251
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 312
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 314
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 323
Marine Fighter Attack Training Squadron 101
Marine Fighter Attack Training Squadron 401
Marine Fighter Training Squadron 401
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 361
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 362
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 363
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 461
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 462
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 463
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 464
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 465
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 466
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 769
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 772
Marine Helicopter Squadron 1
Marine Helicopter Training Squadron 302
Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 167
Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 169
Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 267
Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 269
Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 367
Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 369
Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 773
Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 775
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 161
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 162
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 165
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 166
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 261
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 262
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 263
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 264
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 265
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 266
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 268
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 364
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 365
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 764
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 774
Marine Medium Helicopter Training Squadron 164
Marine Tactical Air Command Squadron 18
Marine Tactical Air Command Squadron 28
Marine Tactical Air Command Squadron 38
Marine Tactical Air Command Squadron 48
Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron-1
Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron-2
Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron-3
Marine Tactical Electronic Warfare Squadron-4
Marine Tiltrotor Training Squadron 204
Marine Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Squadron - 3
Marine Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Squadron 1
Marine Unmanned Aerial Vehicle Squadron-2
Marine Wing Communications Squadron 18
Marine Wing Communications Squadron 28
Marine Wing Communications Squadron 38
Marine Wing Headquarters Squadron 1
Marine Wing Headquarters Squadron 2
Marine Wing Headquarters Squadron 3
Marine Wing Support Group 17
Marine Wing Support Group 27
Marine Wing Support Group 37
Marine Wing Support Group 47
Marine Wing Support Squadron 171
Marine Wing Support Squadron 172
Marine Wing Support Squadron 271
Marine Wing Support Squadron 272
Marine Wing Support Squadron 273
Marine Wing Support Squadron 274
Marine Wing Support Squadron 371
Marine Wing Support Squadron 372
Marine Wing Support Squadron 373
Marine Wing Support Squadron 374
Marine Wing Support Squadron 471
Marine Wing Support Squadron 472
Marine Wing Support Squadron 473

Expeditionary Units
11th Marine Expeditionary Unit
13th Marine Expeditionary Unit
15th Marine Expeditionary Unit
1st Marine Expeditionary Brigade
22nd Marine Expeditionary Unit
24th Marine Expeditionary Unit
26th Marine Expeditionary Unit
2nd Marine Expeditionary Brigade
31st Marine Expeditionary Unit
3rd Marine Expeditionary Brigade
4th Marine Expeditionary Battalion (AT)
9th Marine Expeditionary Brigade
Combat Logistics Battalion 11
Combat Logistics Battalion 13
Combat Logistics Battalion 15
Combat Logistics Battalion 22
Combat Logistics Battalion 24
Combat Logistics Battalion 26
Headquarters Battalion, 2nd Marine Division
I Marine Expeditionary Force
I Marine Expeditionary Force Headquarters Group
II Marine Expeditionary Force
II Marine Expeditionary Forces Forward
III Marine Expeditionary Force
III MEF Headquarters Group
Special Purpose Marine Air-Ground Task Force Afghanistan

Reserves
14th Marine Regiment
23rd Marine Regiment
24th Marine Regiment
25th Marine Regiment
1st Battalion, 14th Marines
1st Battalion, 23rd Marines
1st Battalion, 24th Marines
1st Battalion, 25th Marines
2nd Battalion, 14th Marines
2nd Battalion, 23rd Marines
2nd Battalion, 24th Marines
2nd Battalion, 25th Marines
3rd Battalion, 14th Marines
3rd Battalion, 23rd Marines
3rd Battalion, 24th Marines
3rd Battalion, 25th Marines
3rd Force Reconnaissance Company
4th Assault Amphibian Battalion
4th Battalion, 14th Marines
4th Combat Engineer Battalion
4th Dental Battalion
4th Landing Support Battalion
4th Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion
4th Maintenance Battalion
4th Marine Aircraft Wing
4th Marine Division
4th Marine Logistics Group
4th Medical Battalion
4th Reconnaissance Company
4th Supply Battalion
4th Tank Battalion
6th Communications Battalion
6th Engineer Spt Bn
6th Motor Transport Bn
8th Tank Battalion
Headquarters and Service Battalion
Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron 234
Marine Aerial Refueler Transport Squadron 452
Marine Air Control Group 48
Marine Air Control Group 48 Headquarters
Marine Air Control Squadron 23
Marine Air Control Squadron 24
Marine Air Support Squadron 6
Marine Aircraft Group 41
Marine Aircraft Group 42
Marine Aircraft Group 46
Marine Aircraft Group 49
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 41
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 42
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 46
Marine Aviation Logistics Squadron 49
Marine Corps Mobilization Command
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 112
Marine Fighter Attack Squadron 142
Marine Fighter Training Squadron 401
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 769
Marine Heavy Helicopter Squadron 772
Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 773
Marine Light Attack Helicopter Squadron 775
Marine Medium Helicopter Squadron 764
Marine Tactical Air Command Squadron 48
Marine Wing Support Group 47
Marine Wing Support Squadron 471
Marine Wing Support Squadron 472
Marine Wing Support Squadron 473
TOW Training Company
Weapons Company

Marine Forces
Marine Forces Africa
Marine Forces Central
Marine Forces Command
Marine Forces Europe
Marine Forces Korea
Marine Forces North
Marine Forces Pacific
Marine Forces Reserve
Marine Forces South
Marine Forces US Strategic Command
Multi National Force - West
U.S. Marine Corps Forces, Special Operations Command

Special Forces
Marine Corps Forces Special Operations Command (MARSOC)
Recon Marine
1st Force Reconnaissance Company
4th Force Reconnaissance Company-4th Marine Division Marine Forces Reserve
1st Recon Bn.-1st Marine Division
2nd Recon Bn.-2nd Marine Division
3rd Recon Bn.-3rd Marine Division
Special Operations:USMC Recon and Force Recon
American Snipers

Commands
Marine Corps Combat Development Command     
Marine Corps Logistics Command     
Marine Corps Mobilization Command     
Marine Corps Network Operations and Security Command     
Marine Corps Recruiting Command     
Marine Corps Systems Command     
Training & Education Command
 
Logistics
1st Maintenance Battalion
1st Marine Logistics Group
1st Marine Logistics Group (FWD)
2nd Low Altitude Air Defense Battalion
2nd Maintenance Battalion
2nd Marine Logistics Group
2nd Marine Logistics Group (FWD)
3rd Low Altitude Air Defense Battalion
3rd Maintenance Battalion
3rd Marine Logistics Group
3rd Medical Battalion
3rd Supply Battalion
4th Marine Logistics Group
Combat Logistics Battalion 3
Combat Logistics Battalion 31
Combat Logistics Battalion 4
Combat Logistics Regiment 3
Combat Logistics Regiment 35
Combat Logistics Regiment 37
II MEF Headquarters Group

Food Sevice Support Groups         
1st Force Service Support Group     
2nd Force Service Support Group     
3rd Force Service Support Group 
4th Force Service Support Group

Bases and Stations
Blount Island Command
Combined Arms Training Center Camp Fuji
Deployment Processing Command - Reserve Support Unit
Headquarters and Support Battalion
Maintenance Center Albany
Maintenance Center Barstow
Marine Corps Air Facility Quantico
Marine Corps Air Ground Combat Center Twentynine Palms
Marine Corps Air Station Beaufort
Marine Corps Air Station Camp Pendleton
Marine Corps Air Station Cherry Point
Marine Corps Air Station Futenma
Marine Corps Air Station Iwakuni
Marine Corps Air Station Miramar
Marine Corps Air Station New River
Marine Corps Air Station Yuma
Marine Corps Base Camp Butler
Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune
Marine Corps Base Camp Pendleton
Marine Corps Base Hawaii
Marine Corps Base Quantico
Marine Corps Bases Japan
Marine Corps Installations East
Marine Corps Installations West
Marine Corps Logistics Base Albany
Marine Corps Logistics Base Barstow
Marine Corps Mobilization Command
Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island
Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego
Weapons Training Battalion

Headquarters Agency
Administration and Resource Division
Assistant Commandant of the Marine Corps
Aviation
Chaplain of the Marine Corps
Command, Control, Communications and Computers
Commandant of the Marine Corps
Counsel for the Commandant
Director Marine Corps Staff
Division of Public Affairs
Doctrine Division
Equal Opportunity Branch
Expeditionary Force Development Center
Headquarters Marine Corps
Health Services
HQMC Headquarters Battalion
Information Systems Management Branch
Inspector General of the Marine Corps
Installations & Logistics
Intelligence
Los Angeles Public Affairs
Logistics Modernization  
Manpower & Reserve Affairs
Marine Barracks 8th & I
Marine Corps Combat Development Command
Marine Corps Doctrine Division
Marine Corps Logistics Command
Marine Corps Music
Marine Corps Network Operations and Security Center
Marine Corps Recruiting Command
Marine Corps Studies System
Marine Corps Systems Command
Marine Corps Tactical Systems Support Activity
Marine Corps Warfighting Lab
Marines and the Environment
Navy and Marine Corps Appellate Leave Activity
New York City Public Affairs
Office of Legislative Affairs
Plans, Policies & Operations
Programs & Resources
Safety Division
Sergeant Major of the Marine Corps
Staff Judge Advocate to the Commandant
Training & Education Command
Wounded Warrior Regiment

Training/Schools 
Assault Amphibian School Battalion 
Combined Arms Training Center Camp Fuji 
Engineer Center of Excellence
Field Medical Training Battalion-East
Financial Management School 
Jungle Warfare Training Center
Marine Air Ground Task Force Staff Training Program 
Marine Aviation Training Support Group 21 
Marine Aviation Training Support Group 22 
Marine Aviation Training Support Group 23 
Marine Aviation Training Support Group 33 
Marine Aviation Weapons and Tactics Squadron One 
Marine Special Operations School
Marine Corps Center for Lessons Learned 
Marine Corps College of Continuing Education 
Marine Corps Combat Service Support Schools 
Marine Corps Communication Electronics School 
Marine Corps Distance Learning Center 
Marine Corps Engineer School 
Marine Corps Mountain Warfare Training Center 
Marine Corps Officer Candidates School 
Marine Corps School of Infantry East 
Marine Corps School of Infantry West
Marine Corps Security Force Regiment 
Marine Corps - The Basic School 
Marine Corps Training Information Management System 
Marine Corps Traiing and Advisiry Group
Marine Corps University 
Weapons And Field Training Battalion Camp Pendleton 
Weapons Training Bn., MCB Camp Lejeune

Detachments
Marine Aviation Detachment Patuxent River     
Marine Corps Detachment Aberdeen Proving Grounds     
Marine Corps Detachment Fort Benning     
Marine Corps Detachment Fort Bliss     
Marine Corps Detachment Fort Gordon     
Marine Corps Detachment Fort Huachuca     
Marine Corps Detachment Fort Knox     
Marine Corps Detachment Fort Lee     
Marine Corps Detachment Fort Leonard Wood 
Marine Corps Detachment Fort Meade     
Marine Corps Detachment Fort Sill     
Marine Corps Detachment Goodfellow Air Force Base 
Marine Corps Detachment Naval Station Newport 
Marine Cryptologic Support Battalion, D Company, Fort Gordon 
Marine Cryptologic Support Battalion, H Company, San Antonio 
Marine Cryptologic Support Battalion, HQ, Fort George G. Meade 
Marine Cryptologic Support Battalion, I Company, Oahu

Recruiting
12th Marine Corps District
1st Marine Corps District
4th Marine Corps District
6th Marine Corps District
8th Marine Corps District
9th Marine Corps District
Marine Corps Recruit Depot Parris Island
Marine Corps Recruit Depot San Diego
Recruiting Station Albany
Recruiting Station Albuquerque
Recruiting Station Atlanta
Recruiting Station Baltimore
Recruiting Station Baton Rouge
Recruiting Station Buffalo
Recruiting Station Charleston
Recruiting Station Chicago
Recruiting Station Cleveland
Recruiting Station Columbia
Recruiting Station Dallas
Recruiting Station Denver
Recruiting Station Des Moines
Recruiting Station Detroit
Recruiting Station Fort Worth
Recruiting Station Frederick
Recruiting Station Ft. Lauderdale
Recruiting Station Harrisburg
Recruiting Station Houston
Recruiting Station Indianapolis
Recruiting Station Jacksonville
Recruiting Station Kansas City
Recruiting Station Lansing
Recruiting Station Little Rock
Recruiting Station Los Angeles
Recruiting Station Louisville
Recruiting Station Milwaukee
Recruiting Station Montgomery
Recruiting Station Nashville
Recruiting Station New Jersey
Recruiting Station New York
Recruiting Station Oklahoma City
Recruiting Station Orange County
Recruiting Station Orlando
Recruiting Station Phoenix
Recruiting Station Pittsburgh
Recruiting Station Portland
Recruiting Station Portsmouth
Recruiting Station Raleigh
Recruiting Station Richmond
Recruiting Station Sacramento
Recruiting Station Salt Lake City
Recruiting Station San Antonio
Recruiting Station San Diego
Recruiting Station San Francisco
Recruiting Station Seattle
Recruiting Station Springfield
Recruiting Station St. Louis
Recruiting Station Twin Cities

Other Elements of the Marine Corps
1st Amphibious Assault Company
1st Combat Engineer Bn
1st Combat Engineer Company
1st Dental Battalion
1st Light Armored Recon Company
1st Medical Battalion
1st Supply Battalion
1st Tank Battalion
2nd Assault Amphibian Battalion
2nd Combat Engineer Battalion
2nd Dental Battalion
2nd Light Armored Recon Battalion
2nd Medical Battalion
2nd Supply Battalion
2nd Tank Battalion
3rd Assault Amphibian Battalion
3rd Dental Battalion
3rd Intelligence Battalion
3rd Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion
3rd Radio Battalion
4th Assault Amphibian Battalion
4th Combat Engineer Battalion
4th Dental Battalion
4th Landing Support Battalion
4th Light Armored Reconnaissance Battalion
4th Maintenance Battalion
4th Medical Battalion
4th Supply Battalion
4th Tank Battalion
6th Communications Battalion
6th Engineer Spt Bn
6th Motor Transport Bn
7th Communication Battalion
7th Engineer Support Battalion
8th Engineer Support Battalion
8th Tank Battalion
9th Engineer Support Battalion
Brigade Service Support Group
Chemical Biological Incident Response Force (CBIRF)
Combat Assault Battalion
Combat Logistics Regiment 1
Combat Logistics Regiment 17
Combat Service Support Detachment 21
Combat Service Support Detachment 23
Information Technology Management Community of Interest
Iraq Investigations
Maintenance Center Albany
Marine Corps Embassy Security Group
Marine Corps Intelligence Activity
Marine Corps Network Operations and Security Center
Marine Cryptologic Support Battalion
Marine Special Operations Advisor Group
Marine Special Operations Support Group

Marine Corps Listings and Addendums 
America’s Marines
Anti-terrorism Force Protection
Combined Joint Task Force - Horn of Africa  
EFV Program Office 
Offsite Link for EFV Program Office
Expeditionary Warfare Training Group, Atlantic 
Headquarters Marine Corps
Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program 
Marine
Marines
Marine Corps
Marine Barracks 8th & I
Marine Corps Base Brig Quantico 
Marine Helicopter Squadron One
Marine Junior ROTC Program 
Marine Parents United 
Marine Security Guard Battalion 
Marine Wife
Marine Corps Institute 
Marine Corps League 
Marine Corps Legacy Museum
Marine Corps Logistics Chain Analysis Team East
Marine Corps Marathon
Marine Corps Studies System 
Marine Corps Tactical Systems Support Activity 
Marine Corps Warfighting Lab
Montford Point Marines
Multi National Force - Iraq
National Museum of the Marine Corps
Navy Marine Corps Intranet
Navy-Marine Corps Relief Society
Security Force Battalion FAST Company
Semper Fi
Semper Fidelis 
United States Marine Band, “The President’s Own”
US Marines Combined Action Platoons 

Marine Corps and Military Associations, Organizations, and Foundations
American Legion 
Blue Star Mothers
Ceremonial Music Online (all branches) 
Congressional Medal of Honor Society
Congressional Medal of Honor Society of the United States  
Department of Navy Human Resources  
1st Recon Bn. Association
2nd Recon Bn. Association
3rd Recon Bn. Association
Fleet Reserve Association-USN-USMC-USCG 
Gold Star Wives of America, Inc
Grunt.com
Grunt Gear
Headquarters Marine Corps Association 
 Jarhead.com
Korean War Commemoration
Leatherneck 
Leatherneck.com
Leatherneck Magazine
Marine Corps Association 
Marine Corps Aviation Association
Marine Embassy Guard Association
Marine Corps Engineer Association
Marine Graduation Foundation
Marine Corps Force Recon Association
Marine Corps Grunts Organization
Marine Corps Heritage Foundation 
Marine Corps Law Enforcement Foundation
Marine Corps Reserve Association
Marine Corps Scholarship Foundation
Marine Corps University Foundation  
Marine Security Guard Association
Marine Scout Sniper Association
Marine Toys for Tots Foundation
Military Benefits
Military.com 
Military Order of the Purple Heart
National Rifle Association 
Naval Medicine Online 
Naval Treaty Implementation Program
Non Commissioned Officers Association
1/3 Marines Association
1/5 Vietnam Veterans Chapter
Our Marines 
Paralized Veterans of America
Pearl Harbor Survivors Association, Inc.
Red Cross 
Reserve Officers Association of the U.S.
Sea Services Leadership Association 
Soldiers’, Sailors’, Marines’ and Airmens’ Club
Sgt Grit Marine Specialties
Special Operations Warrior Foundation 
Survivors-Gols Star Wives
The Retired Enlisted Association
The Tailhook Association
The Yellow Ribbon Organization
2/1 Association
2/3 Vietnam Veterans Association
3/1 Marines Association    
3/4 Marine Association    
United Armed Forces Association
U.S. Armed Forces Association
U.S. Marine Raider Association
U.S. Warrant Officers Association
USMC Combats Correspondents’ Association
USMC Motor Transport Association
USMC Silent Drill Platoon
USMC Vietnam Tankers Association
U.S. Warrant Officers Association
Veterans of Foreign Wars of the United States 
Veterans of the Vietnam War
Vietnam Helicopter Pilots Association
Warrant Officers Heritage Association
World War Two Veterans Organization
Veterans for America

Funeral
Affinity Caskets
American Battle Monuments Commission
Arlington Cemetery
Arlington National Cemetery
Coffin
Coffins
Caskets
Astral Casket Company
Aurora Casket Company
Batesville Casket Company
Hutton Stamping Company
Reynoldsville Casket Company
Milso Casket Company
Thacker Casket Company
Marine Funeral
Marine Corps Funeral Honors
Marine Caskets
Marine Casket
Marine Uniform Casket
Marine Uniform Caskets
Marine Veteran Casket
Marine Veteran Caskets
Marine Veteran Military Casket
Marine Veteran Military Caskets
Marine Military Casket
Marine Military Caskets
Marine Military Veteran Casket
Marine Military Veteran Caskets
Marine Leatherneck Casket
Marine Leatherneck Caskets
Marine Enlisted Casket
Marine Enlisted Caskets
Marine Officer Casket
Marine Officer Caskets
Leatherneck Casket
Leatherneck Caskets
Women Marine Casket
Women Marine Caskets
Marine Honor Guard
Marine Corps Honor Guard
Marine Corps Caskets
Marine Corps Casket
Marine Corps Uniform Casket
Marine Corps Uniform Caskets
Marine Corps Veteran Casket
Marine Corps Veteran Caskets
Marine Corps Veteran Military Casket
Marine Corps Veteran Military Caskets
Marine Corps Military Casket
Marine Corps Military Caskets
Marine Corps Military Veteran Casket
Marine Corps Military Veteran Caskets
Marine Corps Leatherneck Casket
Marine Corps Leatherneck Caskets
Marine Corps Enlisted Casket
Marine Corps Enlisted Caskets
Marine Coprs Officer Casket
Marine Corps Officer Caskets
Marine Corps Women Marine Caskets
Leatherneck Casket
Leatherneck Caskets
Veteran Casket
Veteran Caskets (www.veterancaskets.com
Veterans Direct (www.veteransdirect.com

Division Associations    
1st Marine Division
First Marine Division
1st Marine Division Association
First Marine Division Association     
2nd Marine Division
Second Marine Division
2nd Marine Division Association
Second Marine Division Association
3rd Marine Division
Third Marine Division
3rd Marine Division Association
Third Marine Division Association 
4th Marine Division
Fourth Marine Division
4th Marine Division Association
Fourth Marine Division Association 
5th Marine Division
Fifth Marine Division
5th Marine Division Association
Fifth Marine Division Association 
6th Marine Division
Sixth Marine Division
6th Marine Division Association
Sixth Marine Division Association
Women Marines Association 

SEMPER FIDELIS
"Always Faithful"

TESTIMONIALS
UNIFORMS OF THE MARINE CORPS